“Gaussian Distribution-Based Inertial Control of Wind Turbine Generators for Fast Frequency Response in Low Inertia Systems” by the invited lecturer Dr Mostafa Kheshti, (University of Warwick, UK) in the frame of Friday Seminar Series.

Dear Colleagues,

The 5th seminar of the Fall Friday Seminar Series 2022 “Gaussian Distribution-Based Inertial Control of Wind Turbine Generators for Fast Frequency Response in Low Inertia Systems” by Invited Lecture Dr Mostafa Kheshti (Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Warwick, UK) was given on November 11th.


According to recent grid codes, large-scale wind turbines (WTs) are required to provide fast frequency response (FFR). The existing inertial control methods suggest immediate incremental power injection by WTs, followed by the abrupt over-production termination to avoid over-deceleration of the rotor speed. These methods have a drawback that they impose severe secondary frequency drops (SFD), or they consider an unrealistic constant wind speed during their inertial control support. This lecture presents a Gaussian distribution-based inertial control (GDBIC) scheme that can improve the frequency nadir without rotor speed over-deceleration. Upon detecting a power imbalance, WT increases the output power with an incremental power and declines it following Gaussian distribution trajectory controlled by a standard deviation parameter, ensuring by this convergence of the rotor speed to a stable equilibrium. This scheme is also capable of responding to a second cascade event. The performance of the GDBIC is tested on the wind-integrated IEEE standard test systems and compared with other methods reported in literature. Furthermore, experimental tests are used to verify the performance of the proposed scheme, using two different hardware-in-the-loop testing facilities. The blade fatigue is studied using Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST) Code. The lecture also presents the hardware-in-the-loop experimental facilities at the University of Warwick for validation of this project and further collaboration with the industry on the fast frequency response of renewable-based energy sources.

About the author:

Mostafa Kheshti (Senior Member, IEEE) received his PhD degree in Electrical Engineering from Xi’an Jiaotong University, China, in 2017. Afterwards, he joined the School of Electrical Engineering of Shandong University and worked as an associate professor in low inertia systems control from 2018-2021. He joined to the University of Warwick as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Renewable Energy Integrations and Smart Grid in October 2021. He works on the renewable energy-based ancillary services in the UK power system and development of hardware-in-the-loop platform at the Intelligent Control and Smart Energy (ICSE) research group at the University of Warwick. Mostafa was a system operator at the Regional Dispatching Centre of Fars Regional Electric Company, Iran, from 2010-2011.